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НАЈШТЕТНАТА ХРАНА…

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Најштетната храна е: МАРГАРИН. И се’ што содржи маргарин. Научната причина за тоа се нарекува ТРАНС МАСТИ. Транс мастите се добиваат со процесот на т.н. делумна хидрогенизација на растителните масла. Затоа, го видите ли на состав на било кој производ терминот транс масти, или делумно хидрогенизирани масти – мој совет е да не го купувате. Што се’ прават транс мастите во нашето тело? Го дебалансираат холестеролот: ХДЛ оди надолу, ЛДЛ нагоре! За секои 2% од калориите кои доаѓаат од транс мастите – за 23% расте ризик од срцеви болести. Предизвикуваат сеопшта инфламација во телото, со што го започнуваат насекаде процесот на атеросклероза. Ја нарушуваат функцијата на артериите (ендотелот) и со тоа водат кон срцев и мозочен удар. Транс мастите имаат низа на кардиотоксични ефекти. Поттикнуваат зголемување на телесна тежина! Ја зголемуваат отпорноста кон инсулин. Придонесуваат за неплодност кај жените. Еднометриоза. И низа на нарушувања кои влијаат на расположението на човекот. Дополнително, има студии кои ги поврзуваат и со малигните болести. Не само маргарин, туку и секоја торта во која може да има траг од маргарин – не ја консумирајте и не ја давајте на своите деца.   Литература:  1. Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB. Effects of fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 May;77(5):1146-55. PubMed  2. Mozaffarian D, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 13;354(15):1601-13.  3. Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB, King IB, Lawler RL, McDonald GB, Levy WC. Trans fatty acids and systemic inflammation in heart failure. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1521-5. PubMed  4. Han SN, Leka LS, Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, Schaefer EJ, Meydani SN. Effect of hydrogenated and saturated, relative to polyunsaturated, fat on immune and inflammatory responses of adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Lipid Research. 2002;43:445-452  5. Baer DJ, Judd JT, Clevidence BA, Tracy RP. Fatty acids affect plasma markers of inflammation in healthy men fed controlled diets: a randomized crossover study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6):969-73. PubMed  6. de Roos NM, Bots ML, Katan MB. Replacement of saturated fatty acids by trans fatty acids lowers serum HDL cholesterol and impairs endothelial function in healthy men and women. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2001;21:1233-1237.  7. Oh K, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Apr 1;161(7):672-9. PubMed  8. Lemaitre RN, King IB, Raghunathan TE, et al. Cell membrane trans-fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. Circulation 2002;105:697-701.  9. van Dam RM, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB. Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men. Ann Intern Med 2002;136:201-209.  10. Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR Jr, Folsom AR. Fat and incidence of type 2 diabetes in older Iowa women. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1528-1535.  11. Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:790-797.  12. Kavanagh K, Jones KL, Sawyer J, Kelley K, Carr JJ, Wagner JD, Rudel LL. Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Jul;15(7):1675-84. PubMed  13. Field AE, Willett WC, Lissner L, Colditz GA. Dietary fat and weight gain among women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Apr;15(4):967-76.  14. Koh-Banerjee P, Chu NF, Spiegelman D, et al.: Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16,587 U.S. men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;78(4):719-27.  15. Mozaffarian D, Abdollahi M, Campos H, Houshiarrad A, Willett WC. Consumption of trans fats and estimated effects on coronary heart disease in Iran. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug;61(8):1004-10. PubMed  16. Ascherio A, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Master C, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Trans-fatty acids intake and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1994 Jan;89(1):94-101. PubMed  17. Salmero’n J, Hu FB, Manson JE, et al. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jun;73(6):1019-26. PubMed  18. Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. Fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):231-7. PubMed  19. Innis SM, King DJ. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3):383-90.  20. Kummerow FA, Zhou Q, Mahfouz MM, Smiricky MR, Grieshop CM, Schaeffer DJ. Trans fatty acids in hydrogenated fat inhibited the synthesis of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipid of arterial cells. Life Sci. 2004 Apr 16;74(22):2707-23.  21. Osso FS, Moreira AS, Teixeira MT, Pereira RO, Tavares do Carmo MG, Moura AS. Trans fatty acids in maternal milk lead to cardiac insulin resistance in adult offspring. Nutrition. 2008 Jul-Aug;24(7-8):727-32.  22. Anderson NK, Beerman KA, McGuire MA, Dasgupta N, Griinari JM, Williams J, McGuire MK. J Nutr. 2005 Mar;135(3):416-21.  23. Koletzko B. Trans fatty acids may impair biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturates and growth in man. Acta Paediatr. 1992 Apr;81(4):302-6.  24. Missmer SA, Chavarro JE, Malspeis S, Bertone-Johnson ER, Hornstein MD, Spiegelman D, Barbieri RL, Willett WC, Hankinson SE. A prospective study of dietary fat consumption and endometriosis risk. Hum Reprod. 2010 Jun;25(6):1528-35. PubMed  25. Trevizol F, Dias VT, Roversi K, et al. Cross-generational trans fat intake modifies BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus: Impact on memory loss in a mania animal model. Hippocampus. 2014 Nov 14. PubMed  26. Golomb BA, Evans MA, White HL, Dimsdale JE. Trans fat consumption and aggression. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32175. PubMed  27. Pase CS, Roversi K, Trevizol F, Kuhn FT, Dias VT, Roversi K, Vey LT, Antoniazzi CT, Barcelos RC, Bürger ME. Chronic consumption of trans fat can facilitate the development of hyperactive behavior in rats. Physiol Behav. 2014 Nov 26;139C:344-350  28. Kummerow FA, Mahfouz M, Zhou Q, Masterjohn C. Effects of trans fats on prostacyclin production. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2013 Dec;47(6):377-82. PubMed  29. Kummerow FA. The negative effects of hydrogenated trans fats and what to do about them. Atherosclerosis. 2009

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